新西兰环境学作业代写 松海倡议

2020-06-13 21:59

新西兰环境学作业代写 松海倡议
 Agossou et al. (undated) reported that the Songhai initiative had two components: the first was the development of a functional, competitive and efficient agricultural system (parent farm); and the second the incubation of agro-entrepreneurs and promotion of services to increase their productivity, thereby creating a snowball effect through the formation of a critical mass of young  agricultural entrepreneurs and the creation of a framework conducive to the successful development of producers across the African continent. The Songhai model incorporated three key sectors of the economy into a network. It was an industrial cluster model, a model of a productive and autonomous “green rural town”. The model perfectly integrated primary, secondary and tertiary productions. The network stressed on the development of appropriate innovative technologies and training. This diversified production (mixed farming and stock farming) was designed to facilitate technical synergies and complementarities between the different links while ensuring better promotion of the environment. This model enables farmers to produce better and more with less. This is only possible because of an integrated system of production where the principles of synergy, complementarity, supplementary, and negative entropy are in play. Another widely accepted example of institutional approach towards organic agriculture is Partcipatory Guarantee System (PGS). PGS were networks created within local communities and consist of farmers, experts, public sector officials, food service agents, and consumers. These networks certified producers engage in organic production based on active participation of stakeholders and were built on a foundation of trust, social networks and knowledge exchange. The system sets standards to be followed by all the certified producers and ensured by the fellow members. PGS therefore both ensure the diffusion of the innovation and are the means through which the innovation process is governed. PGS began as an experiment in 1970s in the field of organic agriculture in the US, Japan and Brazil and has successfully percolated to 26 countries around the world. In developing countries, where third party certification is a costly affair, PGS was adopted in response to standard setting and confirmation by corporates. (Loconto et al., 2017). Today PGS is being practiced in different countries and has been customized to suit their needs and accommodate within the existing system and machinery. 
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