莫纳什作业代写 玻璃制造的历史

2020-04-21 20:45

玻璃制造的历史可以追溯到古埃及和美索不达米亚。几个世纪以来,玻璃就是在这些地区制造的,玻璃制造工艺遍及中东和近东。古叙利亚是最重要的玻璃产地之一。正是在叙利亚,手工制造玻璃的工艺成为一种根深蒂固的技能,在整个古代世界,许多人都在追求这种技能。从7世纪到9世纪,大马士革、西顿、提尔以及著名的拉卡城都有蓬勃发展的叙利亚玻璃工业。这些城市成为了商人和水手传播玻璃工艺品和贸易的中心。这些商人把从叙利亚制造的手工玻璃传播到整个地中海世界,并最终经由意大利进入欧洲。讨论玻璃的历史及其最终如何成为我们在古叙利亚和周边地区的伊斯兰时代看到的工艺是很重要的。人们相信第一块玻璃是偶然制成的。根据艾克霍尔兹的说法,公元一世纪时,正是老普林尼(Pliny the Elder)在书中写道,玻璃最初被发现的原因是,该地区以交易“苏打水”而闻名的商人曾在海滩上靠岸做饭,需要一种支撑炊具的方式。因为没有现成的石头,他们决定用船上的苏打水来支持炊事船。当苏打块变热时,它们与海滩上的沙子融合在一起;水手们注意到一股不知名的清澈液体从炊具下面流出来。它后来被认为是最早发现的玻璃之一。这种说法很可能是不真实的,因为早在2500年前的考古材料记录中就发现了玻璃。但这是最早证实玻璃知识的书面记录之一。
莫纳什作业代写 玻璃制造的历史
 The history of glass making goes all the way back to ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. For centuries glass was made in these areas, and the craft of glass making traveled throughout the Middle East and Near East. One of the most important regions for glass making was Ancient Syria. It was in Syria that the craft of hand-made glass became a well-established skill which was sought after by many throughout the ancient world. During the 7th century through the 9th century the flourishing Syrian glass industry existed in Damascus, Sidon, and Tyre, as well as the famous city of Raqqa. These cities became the hub in which merchants and sailors were the main transmitters for the spread of glass artifacts and the trade itself. These merchants spread the craft glass making from Syria throughout the Mediterranean world and eventually into Europe via Italy.It is important to discuss the history of glass and how it ultimately became the craft we see in the Islamic era of ancient Syria and the surrounding areas. It was believed that the first glass was made accidentally. According to Eichholz, it was Pliny the Elder who wrote in the first century AD that glass was initially discovered because merchants in the region who were known to trade in “Soda” had docked along a beach to cook a meal, and needed a way to support their cooking vessels. Because there were no stones readily available they decided to use lumps of soda from their ship to support the cooking vessels. When the soda lumps became hot, they fused with the sand from the beach; the sailors noticed that streams of an unknown clear-ish liquid flowed from beneath the cooking vessels. It was later identified as some of the first known glass. This account is most likely untrue because glass had been found in the archaeological material record dating back to as many as 2500 years earlier. But this was one of the first written records confirming the knowledge of glass. 
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