奥克兰作业代写 传统道德价值观

2020-03-10 03:36

参考古斯塔夫·福楼拜的《包法利夫人》和亨里克·易卜生的《玩偶之家》和《建造大师》,在考察传统道德价值观对19世纪戏剧和小说的创作和生产的影响时,必须探究背景。19世纪是一个注重礼仪和公民道德的社会时期,它鼓励人们抵制文学现实主义。这种回到理想主义写作的渴望,正如奥斯卡·王尔德所言,是“卡利班在镜子里看到自己的脸时的愤怒”。法国哲学受笛卡尔二元论的影响,使现实主义成为十九世纪文学的技术。泰因在1858年发表的关于巴尔扎克的文章中鼓励现实主义,并回应了查尔斯·达尔文1859年的《物种起源》,质疑了现存的表现人类经验的模式。福楼贝的《包法利夫人》被指责批评婚姻制度,支持通奸,它颠覆了理想主义,反对公认的社会习俗,震惊了19世纪的读者。这种反对激起了最高法院的敌对情绪,并导致批评人士将现实主义等同于不道德。第二个法兰西帝国的庸俗政策,助长了这种对现实主义的敌对反应;美国道德与政治科学院(Academy of Moral and Political Sciences)认识到连载小说《罗马-弗伊尔顿》(the roman-feuilleton)的不道德影响。正如哈里•莱文(Harry Levin)所指出的,“通奸不需要计算;但是,激情犯罪似乎越来越令人震惊;而法国的自杀率在1830年至1880年间增长了两倍多。[2]中国英语学习网这些证据促使法庭质疑文学在19世纪道德传染中的作用。
奥克兰作业代写 传统道德价值观
In examining the ways in which traditional moral values affected the writing and production of nineteenth-century dramas and novels, with reference to Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary and Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House and The Master Builder, context must be explored. The nineteenth century was a time of societal interest in propriety and civic morality and encouraged a resistance to literary realism. This desire for a return to idealistic writing was, as Oscar Wilde observed, ‘the rage of Caliban seeing his own face in the glass’.[1] French philosophy, influenced by Cartesian dualism, made realism technical to nineteenth-century literature. Realism, encouraged in Taine’s 1858 essay on Balzac and responding to Charles Darwin’s 1859 Origin of Species, questioned existing modes of representing human experience. Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, accused of criticising the institution of marriage and endorsing adultery, shocked its nineteenth-century readership by subverting idealism and opposing accepted social conventions. Such opposition helped galvanize the antagonism of the court and led critics to equate realism with immorality. The Second French Empire, with its philistine policies, encouraged such hostile reactions to realism; the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences recognised the immoral influence of the serialised novel, the roman-feuilleton. As Harry Levin notes, ‘adultery is not subject to computation; but crimes of passion seemed to be breaking out more and more shockingly; while the suicide rate more than tripled during the years between 1830 and 1880 in France’.[2] Such evidence prompted the courts to question the role of literature in nineteenth-century moral contagion.
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